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  • oxidation of refractory minerals

    oxidation of refractory minerals CHLORIDE HYPOCHLORITE OXIDATION AND LEACHING OF REFRACTORY ... Chloride– hypochlorite oxidation and leaching of refractory sulfide gold concentrate 65

  • oxidation of refractory minerals

    high pressure oxidation of refractory gold minerals high pressure oxidation of refractory gold minerals Leaching Of Gold Refractory Ores Minerals processLtd is A FUNDAMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF THE HIGH THAT CONTAIN SULFIDES AND CARBONACEOUS MATERIALS by Mineral Key for Table 4 Lack of efficiency in oxidation of double refractory ores will .

  • Pressure Oxidation of a Refractory Sulfide Concentrate and ...

    Pressure oxidation of the refractory sulfide/carbonaceous ores has gained world-wide acceptance. Compared with roasting, pressure oxidation yields higher gold extractions from ores or concentrates and enables better handling of environmentally sensitive impurities. Normally, gold is extracted from neutralized autoclave leach residue by cyanidation.

  • PRESSURE OXIDATION OF REFRACTORY GOLD ORES: THE

    The refractory nature of the concentrate requires a pressure oxidation (POX) step to oxidise the sulfide minerals and unlock the value metals. The oxidation of sulfides is a highly exothermic reaction. The energy generated by the reaction of the sulfide minerals is such that the autoclave temperature can exceed the 210 – 230°C operating

  • ALTA Gold 2012 E-Doc - Home Albion Process

    ‘locked’ in sulphide minerals. The majority of gold ores are classified refractory because the gold mineralogy is contained in sulphides. This type of gold is typically very fine gold or locked in solid solution within sulphide minerals pyrite and arsenopyrite (FeAsS). The arsenic bearing pyrite is

  • Bio-Oxidation and Biocyanidation of Refractory Mineral ...

    Bio-Oxidation and Biocyanidation of Refractory Mineral Ores for Gold Extraction: A Review Article (PDF Available) in Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology 45(15) October 2014 ...

  • Bio-Oxidation and Biocyanidation of Refractory Mineral ...

    Aug 25, 2014  (2015). Bio-Oxidation and Biocyanidation of Refractory Mineral Ores for Gold Extraction: A Review. Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and

  • Cited by: 10
  • Roasting (metallurgy) - Wikipedia

    Roasting is a process of heating of sulphide ore to a high temperature in presence of air. It is a step of the processing of certain ores.More specifically, roasting is a metallurgical process involving gas–solid reactions at elevated temperatures with the goal of purifying the metal component(s). Often before roasting, the ore has already been partially purified, e.g. by froth flotation.

  • Improved recovery of a low-grade refractory gold ore using ...

    Bacterial oxidation technology can be applied to refractory sulfide ores and concentrates to break down the mineral matrix and release the precious and base metals . During bio-oxidation refractory gold ores processes, mineral decomposition is believed to be mostly due to chemical attack by ferric iron, with the main role of the microorganisms ...

  • Cited by: 13
  • Improved recovery of a low-grade refractory gold ore using ...

    Bacterial oxidation technology can be applied to refractory sulfide ores and concentrates to break down the mineral matrix and release the precious and base metals . During bio-oxidation refractory gold ores processes, mineral decomposition is believed to be mostly due to chemical attack by ferric iron, with the main role of the microorganisms ...

  • Bacterial Oxidation of Refractory Ores

    The bacterial oxidation (BIOX) process for the pre-treatment of refractory ores for gold recovery was developed by the Genmin Process Research laboratory. Early work started in the late 1950’s when the bacteria strain, “Thiobacillus ferrooxidans” was isolated from effluents pumped from the West Rand Consolidated underground mine but at ...

  • Bio-oxidation of refractory gold ores containing stibnite ...

    Bio-oxidation of refractory gold ores containing stibnite and gudmundite. ... One of the main sources of both elements is the oxidation of sulphide minerals, particularly arsenopyrite and therefore any of both elements is a concern in gold mining operations because arsenic- and antimony-bearing sulphides may contain significant gold contents ...

  • Developments in the pretreatment of refractory gold ...

    processing refractory gold ores, especially development in the pretreatment of refractory gold minerals by nitric acid. These processes include the high-pressure and the atmospheric-pressure oxidation methods. High-pressure oxidation processes are difficult

  • OXIDATION OF REFRACTORY GOLD CONCENTRATES AND

    The oxidation of refractory gold concentrates containing arsenopyrite and pyrite ... an anodic oxidation of the mineral involving hydroxyl ions coupled to a cathodic process for oxygen reduction which is partially controlled by mass transfer of dissolved oxygen

  • Refractory metals - Wikipedia

    Refractory metals are a class of metals that are extraordinarily resistant to heat and wear.The expression is mostly used in the context of materials science, metallurgy and engineering.The definition of which elements belong to this group differs. The most common definition includes five elements: two of the fifth period (niobium and molybdenum) and three of the sixth period (tantalum ...

  • REFRACTORY GOLD - PanTerra Gold Limited

    Albion Oxidation Process. The Albion Oxidation Process which was developed in Australia and is patented by a subsidiary of global mining group, Glencore PLC. The Albion Process is an atmospheric leaching process used to oxidise refractory gold sulphide mineral concentrates.

  • OXIDATION OF REFRACTORY GOLD CONCENTRATES AND

    The oxidation of refractory gold concentrates containing arsenopyrite and pyrite and the simultaneous dissolution of gold in aerated alkaline solutions at ambient temperatures and pressures without the addition of cyanide has been studied.

  • oxidation of refractory minerals in angola

    high pressure oxidation of refractory gold minerals high pressure oxidation of refractory gold minerals Leaching Of Gold Refractory Ores Minerals processLtd is , A FUNDAMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF THE HIGH , THAT CONTAIN SULFIDES AND CARBONACEOUS MATERIALS by , Mineral Key for Table 4 , Lack of efficiency in oxidation of double refractory ores will ...

  • Microbial oxidation of refractory gold sulfide concentrate ...

    Refractory gold-bearing ores are characterized by containing submicroscopic gold particles occluded in sulfide minerals such as pyrite and arsenopyrite. Under these conditions, gold cannot be recovered efficiently without an oxidative pretreatment such as roasting, chemical oxidation, or

  • (PDF) Cyanidation of Refractory Gold Ores: A Review

    Cyanidation of Refractory Gold Ores: A Review ... Oxidation of Refractory Gold-Bearing Ores by . ... 2009 The gold in refractory sulfide gold ores is surrounded by sulfide minerals, ...

  • Basic Iron Sulphate in Pressure Oxidation Processing

    refractory gold sulphide hosts are arsenopyrite and pyrite, and in order to achieve acceptable gold recoveries, it is generally necessary to break down the host mineral chemically. This is done by roasting, bacterial oxidation or pressure oxidation . processes, in which the sulphide component of the host mineral is oxidized with oxygen to elemental

  • oxidation of refractory minerals in angola

    high pressure oxidation of refractory gold minerals high pressure oxidation of refractory gold minerals Leaching Of Gold Refractory Ores Minerals processLtd is , A FUNDAMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF THE HIGH , THAT CONTAIN SULFIDES AND CARBONACEOUS MATERIALS by , Mineral Key for Table 4 , Lack of efficiency in oxidation of double refractory ores will ...

  • Microbial oxidation of refractory gold sulfide concentrate ...

    Refractory gold-bearing ores are characterized by containing submicroscopic gold particles occluded in sulfide minerals such as pyrite and arsenopyrite. Under these conditions, gold cannot be recovered efficiently without an oxidative pretreatment such as roasting, chemical oxidation, or

  • (PDF) Cyanidation of Refractory Gold Ores: A Review

    Cyanidation of Refractory Gold Ores: A Review ... Oxidation of Refractory Gold-Bearing Ores by . ... 2009 The gold in refractory sulfide gold ores is surrounded by sulfide minerals, ...

  • Basic Iron Sulphate in Pressure Oxidation Processing

    refractory gold sulphide hosts are arsenopyrite and pyrite, and in order to achieve acceptable gold recoveries, it is generally necessary to break down the host mineral chemically. This is done by roasting, bacterial oxidation or pressure oxidation . processes, in which the sulphide component of the host mineral is oxidized with oxygen to elemental

  • Minerals Metallurgical Processing

    Basic iron sulfate – a potential killer in the processing of refractory gold concentrates by pressure oxidation Minerals Metallurgical Processing , 2010, Vol. 27, No. 2, pp. 81-88 Fleming, C.A.

  • Supergene Oxidation of Copper Deposits: Zoning and ...

    Pyrite is a relatively refractory mineral in the replacement sequence; marcasite oxidizes more quickly than pyrite (Mason and Berry, 1968), and pyrrhotite oxidation is as much as two orders of magnitude faster than oxidation of pyrite (Nicholson and Scharer, 1994). Laboratory observations of Fe sulfide oxidation are corroborated by the para-

  • Effect of Pretreatment of Sulfide Refractory Concentrate ...

    For extraction of gold from refractory ores or concen- trate, in which gold is surrounded or covered by iron sul- fide minerals, mainly arsenopyrite and pyrite, mineral oxidative pretreatment is essential to oxidize sulfides and to expose gold to the leaching solution. Pyrometallurgi- cal oxidation by roasting is under environmental restric-

  • What are the characteristics of refractory metal?

    Definition of Refractory Metal. Refractory metals are referred to metals with melting points over 3632°F and certain amounts of reserves, including tungsten, tantalum, molybdenum, niobium, hafnium, chromium, vanadium, zirconium and titanium.. Usually, refractory metals have great densities and weigh heavily. With refractory metal as a matrix, the alloys added with other elements are called ...

  • Succession of Acidophilic Bacterial Community During Bio ...

    To optimize the rate of bio-oxidation to recover gold from sulfide minerals, it is important to understand the dynamic change of acidophilic bacteria involved in this process. In this study, a batch bio-oxidation experiment was set up to bioleach Au from refractory pyrite and arsenopyrite using a mixed acidophilic culture over the duration of ...

  • Thermochemistry and the Oxidation of Refractory Metals at ...

    Abstract. Recent developments in the thermochemical data for the condensed oxide phases and volatile oxide species for the refractory metals has made possible an analysis of the several types of high temperature oxidation processes.

  • Establishing thE ProcEss MinEralogy of gold orEs

    of non-refractory and refractory gold. Gold in non-refractory sulfide ores can be recovered by whole-ore cyanidation, or some combination of flotation and cyanidation. Acceptable extraction of refractory gold can only be achieved by employing a pre-oxidation process prior to cyanide leaching. Antimony, bismuth sulfide and telluride

  • Bio-oxidation and bio-cyanidation of refractory mineral ...

    Karthikeyan, Obulisamy P., Rajasekar, Aruliah, and Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar (2015) Bio-oxidation and bio-cyanidation of refractory mineral ores for gold extraction: a review. Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology, 45. pp. 1611-1643.

  • Recovery Refractory Resources - SGS

    host minerals in refractory gold deposits. “Recent introduction of hydrometallurgi-cal pre-treatment processes, such as pressure oxidation and bacterial leaching (bio-oxidation), has given mining companies more options for treating refractory ores,” says Dr Fleming. “In many cases, these new technologies have found

  • Biooxidation - BioMineWiki - Skellefteå

    (Both bioleaching and biooxidation are oxidation processes). ... In this way, gold recovery from refractory minerals can increase from 15-30% to 85-95%. In the last 15 years at least ten large-scale commercial gold processing units have been established in South Africa, Brazil, Australia, Ghana, Peru and USA, and eight of them use bioreactors." ...

  • Bio-oxidation and bio-cyanidation of refractory mineral ...

    Karthikeyan, Obulisamy P., Rajasekar, Aruliah, and Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar (2015) Bio-oxidation and bio-cyanidation of refractory mineral ores for gold extraction: a review. Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology, 45. pp. 1611-1643.

  • Recovery Refractory Resources - SGS

    host minerals in refractory gold deposits. “Recent introduction of hydrometallurgi-cal pre-treatment processes, such as pressure oxidation and bacterial leaching (bio-oxidation), has given mining companies more options for treating refractory ores,” says Dr Fleming. “In many cases, these new technologies have found

  • Biooxidation - BioMineWiki - Skellefteå

    (Both bioleaching and biooxidation are oxidation processes). ... In this way, gold recovery from refractory minerals can increase from 15-30% to 85-95%. In the last 15 years at least ten large-scale commercial gold processing units have been established in South Africa, Brazil, Australia, Ghana, Peru and USA, and eight of them use bioreactors." ...

  • Atmospheric alkaline pre-oxidation of refractory sulphide ...

    Four iron-sulphide-containing gold ores from the White Mountain mine in the Jilin Province, China were studied to examine the benefits of using oxidative treatment prior to conventional cyanidation to leach gold. This pre-treatment consisted of bubbling air into an ore/water mixture for eight hours while adding enough caustic sodium hydroxide to maintain a pH of 11 throughout the test. Three ...

  • OXIDATION OF REFRACTORY GOLD CONCENTRATES AND SIMULTANEOUS ...

    Jan 01, 2004  It involves the following aspects: the chemistry of the oxidation of pure arsenopyrite and pyrite minerals in aerated alkaline solutions; the kinetics of oxidation of arsenopyrite and the simultaneous dissolution of gold in such solutions; the kinetics of simultaneous dissolution of gold during the alkaline oxidation of refractory gold ...

  • Evaluation of Parameters in the Bio-Oxidation Process of ...

    The mining districts located in the western mountain range in the south of Ecuador have gold minerals with refractory characteristics, which do not allow gold recovery by traditional methods used in Ecuador. Therefore, it is necessary to apply some technology that permits to obtain greater metal recovery. Bio-oxidation, as treatment of refractory ores that contain low grade of gold, offers an ...

  • Effect of Temperature on Column Bioleaching of a ...

    Low-grade, finely disseminated refractory sulfide gold ores associated with high arsenic are ubiquitous resources all over the world. Since heap bio-oxidation is an economic and promising biotechnology to recover gold, low grade, high organic carbon and arsenic bearing gold ores from Zhesang Mines in China were chosen for this purpose to study the key factors that would affect biooxidation.

  • Microbial oxidation of gold ores and gold bioleaching ...

    This paper reviews recent progress in the use of microorganisms tooxidize the sulfidic matrix in refractory gold ores (bio-oxidation) and to solubilize elemental gold (bioleaching). Arsenopyrite oxidation , Bioleaching , Biohydrometallurgy , Pyrite oxidation , Refractory

  • PRESSURE OXIDATION OF PYRITE-ARSENOPYRITE

    Pressure oxidation of pyrite-arsenopyrite refractory gold concentrate 103 Autoclave oxidation tests were conducted in Büchi ecoclave model 075 titanium autoclave. The total volume of the autoclave vessel was about 1.1 dm3 and it was equipped with magnetic agitation unit, gas inlet and outlet, and sampling system with

  • Oxidation Behavior of Refractory AlNbTiVZr0.25 High ...

    Oxidation behavior of a refractory AlNbTiVZr0.25 high-entropy alloy at 600–900 °C was investigated. At 600–700 °C, two-stage oxidation kinetics was found: Nearly parabolic oxidation (n = 0.46–0.48) at the first stage, transitioned to breakaway oxidation (n = 0.75–0.72) at the second stage. At 800 °C, the oxidation kinetics was nearly linear (n = 0.92) throughout the entire duration ...

  • TECHNOLOGY FOR PROCESSING OF REFRACTORY GOLD

    Autoclave oxidation, bacterial and chemical liberation, roasting, acid oxygen processes, atmospheric oxidation prior to cyanidation are applied to process refractory sulphide concentrates. It is obvious that the processes with the maximum effect regarding gold recovery are those in which complete

  • Fusion Techniques for the Oxidation of Refractory Actinide ...

    Small-scale experiments were performed to demonstrate the feasibility of fusing refractory actinide oxides with a series of materials commonly used to decompose minerals, es, and other refractories as a pretreatment to dissolution and subsequent recovery operations. In these experiments, 1-2 g of plutonium or neptunium oxide (PuO 2 > or NpO2) were calcined at 900 degrees ...

  • Bacterial oxidation - Wikipedia

    The bacterial oxidation process comprises contacting refractory sulfide ROM ore or concentrate with a strain of the bacterial culture for a suitable treatment period under an optimum operating environment. The bacteria oxidise the sulfide minerals, thus liberating the

  • Types of Refractory Materials and Their Applications

    Oct 26, 2015  Various refractory bricks in different sizes and shapes are now available for diverse applications. The typical refractory materials include fireclay refractories, high alumina refractories ...

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    The materials of processing: *

    • Granite
    • Limestone
    • Basalt
    • Pebble
    • Gravel
    • Gypsum
    • Marble
    • Barite
    • Quartz
    • Dolomite
    • Gold Ore
    • Copper ore
    * *

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